has long been touted as an effective way to introduce students to and
immerse them in a subject area, and is a hallmark of many honors-level
courses (see, e.g., Braid & Long, 2000; Bruce, 2005; Harper, 2006;
Machonis, 2008; Srikwerda, 2007). Using experiential learning to teach
evolution can be particularly powerful. In this paper, we highlight
three honors-level experiential learning seminars that combined teaching
topics related to evolution with a field trip to the Galápagos Islands.
One class took place in Spring 2002 with a semester focus on animal
behavior, biodiversity, and evolution (13 students), and the other two
took place in Spring 2009, with one seminar focusing on international
environmental policymaking (3 students) and the other on how the natural
history of the Galápagos influenced the development of Darwin’s thought
(7 students). The Spring 2009 seminars traveled together to the
Galápagos, along with a group of 10 adult learners through the
university’s Continuing Studies program. We describe the three
approaches to teaching about evolution in the Galápagos, highlight
similarities and differences in course structure, compare the two visits
to the Galápagos, and compare student comments and learning objectives.
Seminar Structure and Course
All three classes were
developed as honors enrichment/experiential learning seminars and
students earned one hour of course credit. All were part of the UNCW
Honors Scholars Program “International Splash” initiative that
encourages short study abroad experiences to whet the students’
appetites for more comprehensive international study. Other
destinations have included locations such as Paris, Prague, Berlin, the
Amazon, and southern Spain. Students from all majors enroll. The
typical course format is to hold class for an hour a week during the
first half of the semester, then travel during spring break to the
related international destination as the capstone experience.
Debriefing and follow-up presentations by students are held during the
second half of the semester. However, the 2009 Galápagos trip was held
in May at the end of the semester to facilitate travel scheduling.
The 2009 Honors
Enrichment seminar, The Shaping of Darwin: Geology and Biology of the
Galápagos (taught by PHK), examined the life and work of
Darwin in relation to his visit to the Galápagos. In particular, the
course focused on how the biology and geology of the Galápagos
archipelago shaped Darwin’s understanding of the evolutionary process.
Readings were mainly from the primary literature, including Darwin’s
scientific predecessors and contemporaries (e.g., Cuvier, Lyell, Erasmus
Darwin, and Lamarck). Darwin’s writings are now available online at
http://darwin-online.org.uk/ and students read several of Darwin’s
works: including the Galápagos sections of the Beagle diary and
the Voyage of the Beagle, Notebook B: [Transmutation of species],
and sections of the first edition of Origin of Species.
Students selected a
taxon to research (Galápagos penguin, tortoises, finches, blue-footed
booby, frigate bird, land and marine iguanas), gave a presentation to
the class before the trip, and then served as a resource in the
Galápagos. Finally, students produced journals based on their visit to
the Galápagos using Darwin’s work as a model – a field notebook (based
on the model of the Beagle diary) and a more polished journal
(akin to Darwin’s Voyage of the Beagle) in which they elaborated
on their field observations and reflected on their experience, comparing
it with Darwin’s experience of the Galápagos.
The 2009 Honors
Enrichment Seminar, Managing Evolution’s Workshop: Global and Local
Interests in Galápagos (taught by JEH), examined how the various
forces (domestic and international) interested in the Galápagos
archipelago have shaped its management and conservation. We know that
Darwin considered his voyage on the Beagle to have had a transformative
impact on his life. It is equally evident that Darwin’s visit had
momentous consequences for the country of Ecuador and the Galápagos.
Darwin’s life, the publication of On the Origin of Species, and
the subsequent development of science, generated the international
interest in the archipelago that resulted in the international
conservation effort. Although the first decades of the conservation
effort were characterized by international support and benign neglect on
the part of the Ecuadorian government, in the last two decades, tourism,
a democratic transition and international fishing interests have emerged
as key elements of the conservation effort. Thus, students examined the
impact of each of these events from the international environmental
included background readings on the Galápagos from both international
and domestic political perspectives. In addition to Larson’s
Evolution’s Workshop: God and Science in the Galápagos Islands,
students read two key reports: Galápagos at Risk produced by the
Charles Darwin Research Station and An Analysis of Nature Tourism in
Galápagos by McFarland. These reports focus on the contemporary
pressures confronting the archipelago and provide discussions of various
options for continued high quality conservation. Additional background
material on the Ecuadorian political system and Galápagos’ place in the
same, as well as information on exactly what “eco” or “nature” tourism
is, were provided via lectures.
Each student selected a
park or marine reserve management issue to pursue in greater depth for a
classroom presentation. Similar to the other seminar, the students kept
a journal in which they chronicled their observations about conservation
rules and how they were observed by the officials and local residents.
Faculty leading the 2009
seminars also produced a guidebook summarizing the material studied in
each course; this served as a resource not only for the Continuing
Studies participants but also for students in the other seminar.
Further, both 2009 seminars were part of the UNCW Evolution Learning
Community- a campus- and community-wide celebration of the 200th
anniversary of Darwin’s birth and the sesquicentennial anniversary of
the publication of Origin of Species.
The students had the opportunity to attend lectures by noted Darwin
Scholars throughout the semester, including Eugenie Scott, David Buss,
Peter Carruthers, Kevin Padian, David Quammen,
and David Mindell.
The 2002 Honors
Enrichment seminar, Galápagos: Exploring Evolution (taught by KEB
and MG), centered around the study of the animal life of the Galápagos
with attention to island biogeography, behavioral ecology and current
examples of evolution. After going over the basics of evolutionary
terminology, we assigned two longer readings for discussion over the
next few class meetings- Weiner’s Beak of the Finch, and a
section on the Galápagos and island biogeography from Quammen’s Song
of the Dodo. We also viewed and discussed the film companion to
Beak of the Finch—“What Darwin Never Saw”, which highlights the
Grants’ research on observable evidence of natural selection in the
medium ground finch on Daphne Minor. Similar to the other seminars,
students chose and researched different species (e.g., lava lizard,
marine iguanas, Galápagos penguins, Galápagos tortoises, waved
albatross, finches, mockingbirds, boobies, fur seals, and introduced
mammals), presented mini field guides to the class before the trip, and
served as the “experts” on the species on the trip. Students also kept
journals in the Galápagos-- part field notes and part personal
A highlight during the
semester was having noted author and nature-writer David Quammen as a
featured speaker on campus; the students were able to spend time talking
with him informally after his lecture. At the end of the semester, we
gathered to share photos and journal entries over an Ecuadorian pot-luck
The visit began with a
tour of the capital city of Quito. During the tour group members
witnessed a common political event, a protest, outside the Presidential
Palace. The next day we traveled two hours north to the indigenous
community of Otavalo. In our trip through the Ecuadorian countryside,
all group members saw the development process, examples of land
invasions, examples of incomplete home construction, as well as the
various types of national industry. All of these factors provided the
background to understanding the context of the management challenges in
Galápagos, which include mainland problems with access to land and jobs
in a predominantly agricultural economy.
The combination of high
population density and land pressure has resulted in migration to the
Galápagos in search of tourism-related jobs, which has led to a
population explosion. In the 1990s this population growth was also
driven by the international fishing industry interest in sea cucumber.
Although that fishery is largely depleted,
fishing interests have focused on other species for extraction
and park, research station and national government officials have
increased efforts to divert employment away from marine reserve
extraction to tourism. Because the tourism industry has long been
foreign-dominated, officials are now promoting what they call a
domestically-sustainable model that puts tourism revenues in the hands
of Ecuadorians. This means more island-based tours with day trips.
The island of Santa Cruz
served as the base for the Galápagos visit, from which day cruises were
taken to Floreana and Isabela, as well as to smaller islands for
bird-watching (e.g., Daphne Major, Enderby). Exploration of Santa Cruz
included the highlands (the Primicias tortoise reserve and volcanic
features such as craters and a lava tunnel), as well as Bachas Beach
with its marine iguana population. A brief visit was also made to the
Charles Darwin Research Station to observe the tortoise breeding
program. Floreana offered the giant tortoise reserve and highland
springs and caves. On Isabela, a hike to Sierra Negra volcano yielded
spectacular views of the caldera. Each day trip also provided
opportunities for snorkeling, including deep-water snorkeling in an area
frequented by sea lions.
The itinerary thus
enabled students in the Shaping of Darwin seminar to observe the
geology and recognize the role of plate tectonics in creating
“evolution’s workshop” in the Galápagos. Students were excited to
witness the organisms they had researched and to make observations of
the fauna and flora similar to those made by Darwin in the Beagle
diary and Voyage of the Beagle. Such experiences allowed them to
consider the role of the Galápagos in the development of Darwin’s
Students in the
Managing Evolution’s Workshop seminar had the opportunity to discuss
park rules and regulations with the tour operator, the naturalist
guides, and members of the Galápagos community. Through their
experiences during the tours and after hours around Puerto Ayora, they
confirmed and discovered new aspects of the status of the management
model and the conservation process.
Each evening at dinner
there was a discussion of what students had learned from their tour
guides, the boat operators, or locals they had encountered. In addition
during the tours and at dinner, the Continuing Studies participants in
the tour frequently made use of the student resource persons.
As most flights to
Ecuador arrive late in the evening, the day following arrival in Quito
was scheduled for an introduction to South American bird life. This
involved an early morning drive into the Andean forest exploring West
Slope cloudforest sites of Mindo and Bellavista. The incredible
biodiversity of this region stands in marked contrast to the relative
paucity of species in the Galápagos; indeed we recorded more bird
species in a single morning in the cloudforest than we were to see
during the entire week in the islands. This contrast set the stage for a
deeper understanding of the principles of island biogeography that were
Figure 1. Students and faculty disembark from
the panga and try to avoid stepping on sea lions at Isla Lobos,
We boarded our
economy-class boat for our six-night cruise after an early morning
flight to the island of Baltra, and by early afternoon were hiking on
South Plaza Island. Life on the boat generally involved cruising to the
next site at night so that we woke up at the day’s destination. Morning
hikes were following by mid-day snorkeling (sometimes with penguins or
sea lions) and then a brief cruise to a second site for an afternoon
hike. Evenings were spent debriefing the day’s sightings under the
stars; highlights each night were the construction of a bird, mammal
and fish list by the group and discussion of the significance of what we
had seen. The on-board presence of an Ecuadorian park guide enhanced the
value of experience by providing a cultural window, as well as through
his expertise as naturalist and the local crew gave us additional
Our itinerary included
South Plaza, San Cristobal, Espanola, Floreana, Santa Cruz, Bartoleme
and North Seymour Islands—completing a more-or-less clockwise route from
Baltra. By visiting these and numerous smaller islands we were able to
observe most of Darwin’s finches and all four of the endemic
mockingbirds that were perhaps even more crucial to Darwin’s thinking
than the more famous finches, as each is recognizably like the mainland
mockingbird, yet quite distinctive.
2. Students and faculty enjoy the view from the summit of Bartoleme
On South Plaza Island we
had our first views of land iguana and aerial views of red-tailed
tropicbirds, swallow-tailed gulls and the ubiquitous frigate birds. San
Cristobal allowed us to see two of the three booby species at Punta Pitt
(masked and blue-footed), the sea lion colony on Isla Lobos, and the
spectacular Kicker Rock. Espanola provided good looks at marine
iguanas, Galápagos hawks, and the Hood mockingbird. In addition to
Floreana, we visited nearby Champion Island to see the Charles
mockingbird. While we did not go to Isabela, Bartoleme afforded
impressive views of Pinnacle Rock and an introduction to the more
vulcanized geology characteristic of the western islands.
In the middle of the
week, we anchored at Puerto Ayora on Santa Cruz, and spent a day touring
the Charles Darwin Research Center. The students also had a chance to
spend an evening in the city and meet local residents, similar to the
The six-night cruise
allowed us to see most of the endemic Galápagos species and to closely
observe and consider many of the clues that influenced Darwin’s
thinking. Returning to Quito, we toured the colonial city, and then had
a memorable dinner at a traditional restaurant.
3. UNCW students approach Kicker Rock, Galápagos.
Figure 4. Students, adult learners, and faculty enjoy the ride
between islands in the Galápagos, encountering dolphins.
5. Students and a tortoise at the Charles Darwin
Research Center on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos.
6. Students, community members and faculty watch giant tortoises roaming
freely on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos.
Learning Objectives and Student
In addition to a
standard open-ended response instrument used to record student comments
about the class, the 2009 seminar instructors designed a survey to
administer on the flight home. Questions were identical for the two
seminars except for one question geared specifically for each seminar
topic. The 2002 seminar instructors utilized the open-ended feedback
instrument only, but added comments from three students seven years
The learning objectives
for the Managing Evolution’s Workshop course were to develop an
understanding of the process of international environmental
policy-making, evaluate the impact of scientists on domestic political
environments, and understand the obstacles to conservation in the
Galápagos. For the Shaping of Darwin course, objectives were to
understand the scientific and social context of the development of
Darwin’s ideas, compare Darwin’s views on evolution with those of his
predecessors, analyze the development of Darwin’s thought as revealed in
his writings, evaluate the factors influencing the development of
Darwin’s thought, particularly the role of his visit to the Galápagos,
and reflect on Darwin’s influence on science and culture.
How well did the
travel experience relate to the topics covered in class? Most
students noted the strong relation between the travel experience and the
topics covered in the class. In some cases, they offered suggestions.
- Our class covered
mainly the political science of the Galápagos and Ecuador’s
involvement. The travel experience allowed me to see the management
issues that we discussed in class and what “sustainable tourism”
implies. However, the experience didn’t really relate to the
solutions to the issues and all the groups interested in exploiting,
profiting or managing the islands.
- The topics covered
in class such as information about geological and evolutionary
theory wonderfully overlapped with our tour of the Galápagos. The
readings of Darwin’s essays and journals gave us the chance to
witness the things personally described by Darwin.
- I think it related
really well to all of the stuff we read by Darwin. I was able to
pick up on many of the same characteristics and observations as he
wrote about as well as seeing the immense diversity of organisms on
discussion focused on the shaping of evolutionary thought, but the
Galápagos trip focused more on observing the fauna than on
discussing its evolution.
What did you expect
to get out of this trip and were your expectations fulfilled? Most
comments were very positive- “an experience to remember” and “my
expectations were far exceeded.” Some suggestions were also mentioned:
- I expected to
learn about a foreign culture, get up close to the nature of the
Galápagos and learn more about the conservation. I didn’t learn
much about conservation/management but my expectations were more
than fulfilled in terms of culture and nature, especially marine
- I was expecting to
have a wonderful experience being in a foreign country, witnessing a
different culture, and seeing a unique flora and fauna that I may
never be able to see again. Although I, and others, became ill
during the trip, my expectations were more than fulfilled.
- The time we spent
in the Galápagos was amazing, but there was so much that we did not
see and I would have liked to of spent more time in the Galápagos
and less time on the mainland.
- I expected to
enjoy the trip and continue to learn about the Galápagos. Both of
these were fulfilled. However, I was also expecting to discuss a
little more about Darwin while we were down there, which we did not
What experiences did
you find most memorable? What might be the long-term impact of this
trip, for you personally? All students mentioned interacting with
the animal life, particularly the marine mammals (snorkeling with sea
lions, having a large group of dolphins swim with our boat).
- Riding in the
front of the boat with the dolphins and swimming with the sea
lions. This trip has reminded me how beautiful nature can be when
it’s unspoiled and given me more drive to want to work to conserve
- It enhanced my
interest in marine biology and may have an impact on my future
- One thing I did
not expect was how much I bonded with the other students on this
trip. I hope we all stay in touch. I won’t forget this trip and
all the people who were with me. It was (also) very refreshing to
experience a new culture.
- I also learned a
lot not just from being in a new place but experiencing all new
things with people who were strangers a week ago but are now [my]
friends. Hearing other people’s ideas and thoughts was really mind
opening and realizing I can have so much in common with people who
are so different from me was really the most lasting impact on me,
as well as taking in true natural beauty of the world and how well
it can work in harmony as one.
How well did the
travel experience enhance your knowledge of the current management
problems in the Galápagos National Park and Marine Reserve?
- The travel
experience allowed me to see firsthand the management problems that
exist, mostly from tourism, and the issues that Ecuadorians need to
How well did the
travel experience enhance your knowledge of how Darwin’s ideas were
shaped by the Galápagos?
- Really well, it
made me have a deeper appreciation for his inferences because while
after having all the facts it is easy to conclude with natural
selection but visiting Galápagos made me see how difficult it must
have been to pick out all the right and relevant information.
- Actually observing
differences among the tortoises helped me see the role of natural
- It is hard to make
the connection to the shaping of Darwin’s ideas when many of the
plants, especially, and to some extent the animals that we saw are
not native of the Galápagos. [commenting on the large number of
recently introduced species]
Thus, the survey results
for both sections of the 2009 seminars indicated that the travel
component clearly enhanced the overall learning experience of the
course, both intellectually and in terms of broadening student
perspectives. Student comments suggest that these gains will be
long-term. A few comments indicated that more deliberate review during
the trip of the material covered during the semester (e.g., on evolution
and the evolution of Darwin’s thought) would have been helpful. Such
discussions were held with individual participants or in small groups,
but the opportunities for group discussion were hampered by having to
divide participants into two groups based on the limited capacity of the
boats used for day trips. Some “recapping” of daily experiences was
done at meals, but the large size of the group made it difficult to
include all participants in these discussions. In addition, 21 of 22
participants were sick by trip’s end, hindering the “wrap-up”
activities. Had it been possible to make the trip before the end of the
semester, such a review would have been built into the course.
Learning objectives for
the animal behavior and evolution seminar were to understand basic
concepts of evolution, especially adaptive radiation, biodiversity, and
ecological niche, with an appreciation for current examples of natural
selection in process. Similar positive responses were made by students
in the 2002 seminar on the open-ended feedback instrument. All but one
student commented that the class met their expectations; this student
did not like keeping a journal and thought the workload was too heavy.
All the other students noted that the assignments and readings
complemented the visit to the Galápagos, and allowed them to express
what they learned in class. As above, several noted that this was the
“trip of a lifetime.” One student recommended that additional class
time be allotted for reviewing travel guides (several were recommended
to the students), and one suggested scheduling a hike to practice using
binoculars before future trips. Other particular comments and insights
are included below, and reflect the positive experience of experiential
learning and the benefits of travel to another country.
- It was great to
see the evolution we learned about in class in a first-hand
- I would recommend
this course to everyone; the style of learning can not be duplicated
in a classroom.
- The workload for
the class was just right. It was challenging in the sense that the
more knowledge you gained [before the visit], the more beneficial
the trip to Ecuador was [for you].
- The experience I
gained by seeing what life is like outside the U.S. is priceless.
- This course
challenged me to learn about a place very different from what I
know. In learning about the Galápagos, I unexpectedly learned a
great deal about myself and my country.
We (MG and KEB)
contacted three students who traveled on the 2002 trip to ask about
long-term impact of the class. While majors of the students in the class
ranged from biology, psychology, and geology to education and business,
we were able to contact only three students who are currently in
doctoral programs in biology. While clearly not a representative sample,
the comments from these students are revealing.
- I feel like I
never truly understood endemism and how special it is until visiting
the Galápagos. The fact that these animals strutted in our path
made it even better. I did not have to hunt to find the elusive
blue-footed booby, I had to side-step it on the trail. I loved the
fact that I had to step over sea lions during hikes…The thought of
the trip, even though it was more than 7 years ago, brings a smile
to my face to this day.
- One of my favorite
parts of the trip was the nightly "list-making" sessions. I loved
spending time every evening listing the birds, mammals, fish,
reptiles, etc. that we saw each day. I still have my journal and
animal list … at my parents’ house and I read it nearly every time I
visit. I loved that trip and throughout all of my travels have
never come close to experiencing a better outdoor classroom.
- The trip to
Galápagos was more than a once in a lifetime experience. It was a
chance to see first-hand everything that we had read about in texts
in action. I had always dreamed of being able to see the famous
tortoises, mockingbirds, and finches, but honestly didn't think that
was something that could become reality.
- And talk about
active learning--going to the Galápagos Islands to see where Darwin
first imagined the concept of evolution, seeing the animals he saw,
witnessing first-hand the differences in finch beaks and the
incredible adaptations (and fearlessness) of island animals is as
active as you can get! Before the trip, we all specialized in a
particular area, becoming experts and teaching our peers. The
upcoming trip made us especially eager to learn all that we could…On
the trip, our prior knowledge allowed us to observe not as tourists,
but as scientists. We asked more informed questions and understood
more fully the differences between the islands when we were there
than any tourist could, and we took our understanding of evolution
to a [higher] level.
Relation to other
- I read Beak of
the Finch for the first time in your class (and have since
re-read it twice for other courses). What we got to do that I
believe was truly unique was to read this book and then go to the
islands and see the finches. Though I regret that I was not the
birder then that I am today, I felt so connected to …the process of
evolution as we looked at …the finches on the various islands.
Seeing Daphne Minor and knowing the great science that occurred on
that tiny island… I will never forget that sensation. Last year I
heard Rosemary Grant speak [at a conference] and felt so close to
her work…like I had been there all along, measuring beaks or
avoiding giving water to thirsty birds in times of drought. I think
I was able to feel so close to her talk because I had been to the
islands and seen "her" finches. When she showed pictures, I felt my
chest puff out a little as in "Ah yes, I too have seen that."
- The course started
and expanded my deep interest in evolution, natural selection and
sexual selection. I have seen things that many other scientists
have never experienced because I saw what nature can do when left to
its own devices. Since taking the course I have read many books on
natural and sexual selection and Darwin. Every time I read about
the iguanas or boobies or tortoises I feel truly lucky that I have
seen those things with my own eyes. It is one thing to read about a
frigate bird's mating display in a book, it is another to see an
island with bushes "bleeding" with the red throats of displaying
males so rowdy you can barely hear yourself think.
- Since I was young,
I knew that I wanted to become a scientist, but in a way that trip
opened my eyes to the many possibilities that I could pursue for a
research career. I went from studying fish behavior as an
undergraduate to behavioral resistances to disease in honeybees in
graduate school. I could've gone to any number things, and it was
the experience in Galápagos that gave me that insight. I started
thinking more outside of my niche and became more interested in a
variety of organisms and systems.
- As a PhD student,
I am now a behavioral ecologist … a field that draws strongly from
evolutionary biology. I have also taken several courses and been
involved in several other efforts to better train graduate students
in teaching pedagogy and bringing creativity into the college
classroom. As I explore both of these fields of interest, I
constantly call back on my experiences from my honors seminar that
taught evolutionary biology with the capstone experience of
traveling to the Galápagos Islands. In fact, this early experience
during my sophomore year of college contributed very strongly to my
decision to pursue animal behavior and evolutionary biology further,
both as an undergraduate and now as a PhD student.
- … This trip … made
me dedicated to offering similar experiences for my future
undergraduate students when I am a professor.
- The trip to the
Galápagos was my first experience abroad, the first stamp in my
passport. Since then I have been bitten by the travel bug and go
everywhere I can afford to go.
- Traveling abroad
gave me a greater perspective in my education that I likely wouldn't
have been able to achieve otherwise.
Traveling with students
is a gift. However, as can happen with any trip, unexpected situations
arise. Participants in each of the seminars experienced unforeseen
illnesses and lost passports. The value of scheduling a lay-over in
Quito was brought home when one of the students lost her passport and
was forced to remain in Miami with one of the group leaders. The
passport was recovered and both flew into Quito the next day in time for
the Galápagos flight. One of the 2002 participants recounted that she
has taken this to heart:
- I carry thoughts
of that trip and the lessons I learned with me in my daily
life--lessons which also include keeping track of my passport, not
eating things I am allergic to, always carrying Dramamine, and not
jumping off of a ship with my snorkel in my hand.
learning component of these seminars, the visit to the Galápagos, was
clearly the capstone for the classes. As many of the students
commented, while they had read a good bit about evolution, actually
seeing the animals, flora, and geology of the islands made the concepts
come alive. In all seminars, the students commented that their prior
research of the fauna or the park system added depth to their visit to
It is noteworthy that
students in all seminars represented a variety of majors. Further, the
faculty represented three different disciplines, and each was able to
connect discipline topics to the teaching of evolution and its impact on
biology, animal behavior, geology, and politics. An important
innovation in the 2009 seminars was the inclusion of adult scholars from
various walks of life. Their presence underscored the importance of
life-long learning to the college students, while offering richness to
the discussions that took place on the trip.
While the value of using
travel and experiential learning as a foundation for evolution-related
classes is evident, the same model can be used effectively for teaching
other topics as well. Still, the unique experience of walking the
Galápagos Islands in the footsteps of Charles Darwin offers a
perspective that is unsurpassed.
Braid, B. & Long, A., eds. (2000). Place as text: Approaches to
active learning. [Monograph]. Birmingham: National Collegiate
Bruce, K. (2005). Travels with Charley and Mike and Becky and Nina and
Melissa and Tauheed and Johanna and Matt and John and …In J. Digby
(Ed.), Smart choices: Honors programs and colleges (pp. 34-35).
Lawrenceville, NJ: Thomson/Peterson’s.
Harper, S. (2006). Experiential learning vs. passive learning: The
role of cases, exercise, and experiential projects in fostering learning
and student development. In C. Clements (Ed.), Best practices in
university teaching (pp. 93-112). Wilmington, NC: The Publishing
Machonis, P.A., ed. (2008). Shatter the glassy stare: Implementing
experiential learning in higher education. [Monograph]. Lincoln,
NE: National Collegiate Honors Council.
Stikwerda, R. A. (2007). Experiential learning and City as Text TM
: Reflections on Kolb and Kolb. Journal of the National Collegiate
Honors Council, 8, 99-105.
Resources and Seminar Readings List
Barrett, S. (Producer). (1995). What Darwin never saw. [videorecording
from The New Explorers series]. Chicago: Kurtis Productions,
Ltd. and WTTW : Public Media, Inc. [distributor].
Castro, I., & Phillips, A. (1996). A guide to the birds of the
Galápagos Islands. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Charles Darwin Foundation. (2006). Galápagos at risk: Groundbreaking
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