Course Descriptions

*Please refer to the university catalogue for official reference.

Geography

GGY 130. Introduction to Physical Geography (4) Spatial distribution of environmental elements and processes, including weather and climate, groundwater, soils, rocks, plate tectonics, landforms, and vegetation. Three lecture and two laboratory hours each week.
GGY 140. Introduction to Human Geography (3) Survey of the geography of human settlement patterns and activity throughout the world. Emphasis on relationships between physical environments and different facets of human culture, including population, resources, regional development, urban growth, and political, linguistic, and religious patterns.
GGY 180. World Geography I (3) Regional survey of historical, physical, economic, and cultural geography of Europe and the Americas. Fundamental locational geography as the foundation for a clear world view and an understanding of global interdependence.
GGY 181. World Geography II (3) Regional survey of historical, physical, economic, and cultural geography of Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Fundamental locational geography as the foundation for a clear world view and an understanding of global interdependence.
GGY 205. Practical Methods in Geography (3) Introduction to fundamental and analytical methods used by professional geographers. Includes examination of geography as a discipline of human inquiry and methods used in all subdisciplines of geography.
GGY 210. Geography of the Global Economy (3) Introduction to the world economy, with emphasis on regional and local variations in the pattern of economic globalization. From subsistence agriculture to the global flows of capital and information, this course examines the geographical dimension of current economic activities.
GGY 215. The Digital Globe (3) Introduction to the maps, data, and methods commonly used by geographers to investigate spatial relationships from local to global scales. Includes the examination of geography as a discipline whereby human and physical environments are spatially explored.
GGY 220. Cartography (3) Prerequisite: GGY 130 or GGY 140. Techniques of cartographic design, drafting, data representation and map interpretation. Two lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GGY 222. Quantitative Methods in Earth Sciences (3) Use and interpretation of statistical techniques in geographic and geologic research. The course emphasizes problem identification, data collection and interpretation through assignments covering specific kinds of statistical methods.
GGY 230. Introduction to Weather and Climate (3) Examination of general climatic characteristics through space and time, especially as influenced by controls upon temperature, wind and moisture distributions, and by planetary, regional and local atmospheric disturbances.
GGY 235. (GLY 226) Principles of Hydrology (3) Prerequisite: GGY 130 or GLY 101 or GLY 120. Covers the three main components of terrestrial hydrology: (1) atmospheric water, precipitation, and surface-atmosphere interactions; (2) groundwater, infiltration, substance flow, and aquifers; and (3) surface water, watersheds, rivers and floods. Lectures and exercises focus on collecting and interpreting hydrological data to address environmental issues.
GGY 255. Geography of the Middle East (3) Geographical, geological, historical and archaeological investigation of the physical environment and cultural landscapes that provide the settings for the evolution of the populations and cultures of Southwestern Asia.
GGY 270. Principles of Land Use Planning (3) Prerequisite: GGY 130 and 140 or consent of instructor. Introduction to planning techniques and to planning as a profession. Classification and analysis of spatial variations in land use patterns and development processes as they relate to the physical environment and human activities.
GGY 280. Special Topics in Geography (1-3) Prerequisite: GGY 130 or 140, or 180 or 181. Selected physical, cultural, regional, or applied topics in geography that are not considered in detail in regular course offerings. More than one topic may be taken for credit (maximum six hours).
GGY 282. Geography of North Carolina (3) Prerequisite: GGY 140 or consent of instructor. A survey of the physical and cultural landscapes of North Carolina with the emphasis on an understanding of the complex geographical variety that exists within a dynamic and growing southern state.
GGY 312. Geography of Transportation (3) Prerequisite: GGY 140 or consent of instructor. Study of the structural elements of transportation systems and the spatial processes associated with their development.
GGY 317. Urban Geography (3) Prerequisite: GGY 140 or consent of instructor. Analysis of the spatial distribution, growth, function and structure of urban places with emphasis on urban developments and problems in the United States.
GGY 328. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (3) Prerequisite: GGY 220 or consent of instructor. Examination of the uses of GIS in demographics, market area analysis, natural resources management, automated mapping, land use planning and development and hazardous waste management. Study of multiple data sources available today and the integration of these data to solve problems. Two lecture and two lab hours each week.
GGY 333. Applied Climatology (4) Prerequisite: GGY 130 or 230 or consent of instructor. The spatial distribution and character of climates, their relation to other elements of the environment and to human activities. Students work individually or in small groups to solve problems through applications of climate principles and data. Three lecture and two laboratory hours each week.
GGY 335. (GLY 335) Geomorphology (4) Prerequisite: GGY 130 or GLY 101 or GLY 120 and GLYL 120. A systematic treatment of the surface processes that shape fluvial, glacial, aeolian, and coastal landforms. Themes include process mechanics, description and classification of landforms, and evolution of landform systems. Students work individually or in small groups to analyze geomorphological data in field and laboratory settings. Three lecture and two laboratory hours each week.
GGY 336. Rivers and Floods (3) Prerequisite: GGY 130 or GLY 101 or GLY120 and GLYL 120. Covers the hydrology and geomorphology of watersheds. Topics include using hydrologic data, river channel patterns, soil erosion and sedimentation processes, and human impacts on river systems.
GGY 340. Resources, Population, and Environment (3) Prerequisite: GGY 130 or consent of instructor. Introduction to major views on population growth and resource use with a focus on food, water, and energy. Explores the role of economic and cultural development and analyzes regional patterns, including migration trends.
GGY 345. The Geography of Food (3) Prerequisites: GGY 130 and 140 or 180 or 181. Foodways and the various roles that food has played in world history, the geographic and economic aspects of food production and supply, the cultural significance of foods, and personal attitudes towards nutrition.
GGY 346. The Geography of U.S. Race Relations (3) Economic, social, political and cultural geography of white and non-white relations in the United States through a sequence of racially-charged eras from European colonialism to the present.
GGY 350. World Political Geography (3) Prerequisite: GGY 140 or consent of instructor. Geographical perspective on the political relations of peoples and states in this age of globalization. Emphasis on ethnic and national identities, conflict and cooperation, and the political-geographic impact of globalization.
GGY 360. Tourism and the Environment. (3) Prerequisite: GGY 140 or EVS 195 or consent of instructor. Introduction to the geography of tourism, including the cultural, economic, environmental, planning, and political dimensions of the industry, from the perspective of sustainability. The second half of the course is devoted to tourism and the environment, including forms of “green” tourism.
GGY 382. Regional Geography of the United States (3) Prerequisite: GGY 140 or consent of instructor. A regional analysis of physical characteristics, resource base and human geography of the United States.
GGY 383. Geography of the Caribbean (2) Prerequisite: GGY 180 or 181 or consent of instructor. A regional analysis of the cultural and physical features of the Caribbean. Special emphasis upon environmental and historical geography.
GGY 384. Caribbean Field Experience (2) Prerequisite: GGY 383 or consent of instructor. Field course with emphasis on the physical and environmental geography of the Caribbean. Students work individually or in small groups to observe, map, and collect data to interpret the Caribbean landscape. Field trip will be followed up by written research report.
GGY 385. Regional Geography of Europe (3) Prerequisite: GGY 140 or consent of instructor. A regional analysis of the physical and cultural features of Europe.
GGY 386. Geography of Latin America (3) Prerequisite: GGY 180 or consent of instructor. Regional analysis of Latin America and its constituent regions including Mexico, mainland Central America, and South America. Geographical topics will include: landforms, climate, vegetation, soils, migration, diffusion, agricultural systems, religion, ethnicity, territorial conflicts, economic development, deforestation, and urbanization.
GGY 388. Russia (3) Prerequisite: GGY 180 or 181, or consent of instructor. Physical geography, historicalgeographical context, and current geographical and ecological issues of the Russian Federation.
GGY 422. (522) Remote Sensing in Environmental Analysis (3) Prerequisite: GGY 130 or GLY 205 or GLY 101 or consent of instructor. Use and interpretation of aerial photography and other remote sensing techniques in environmental analysis. Emphasis on problem identification, digital image analysis, and interpretation of images through laboratory exercises. Students work individually or in small groups to apply remote sensing concepts to solve complex problems. Two lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GGY 424. (524) Advanced Geographic Information Systems (4) Prerequisite: GGY 328. Advanced theory and application of the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), spatial data collection, data structures, data management and relational databases, spatial analysis, and display of geographic information in a computer-based environment. Lectures, demonstrations, and lab exercises. Students work individually or in small groups to learn GIS software. Two lecture and four laboratory hours each week.
GGY 426. Environmental Geographic Information Systems (4) Prerequisite: GGY 328 or consent of instructor. Overview of environmental applications of GIS and completion of a GIS project; planning a GIS project; development and analysis of the data, and oral and written presentation of the results. Research topics may include hazardous waste management, atmospheric studies, oceanography, hydrology, ecology, biology, resource management, and hazards risk assessment. Students work individually or in small groups to learn how to create a GIS project to solve an environmental problem. Two lecture and four laboratory hours each week.
GGY 433. Weather Analysis and Forecasting (3) Prerequisites: GGY 230, 333. Introduction to tools of weather analysis and use of these tools to compute weather forecasts. Students work individually or in small groups to learn how to complete and construct weather forecasts.
GGY 435. Environmental Geography (3) Prerequisite: GGY 130 or GLY 101 or GLY 120. Investigation of human impacts on the environment into sections on biota, water, soils, atmosphere, and landforms. Student will investigate case studies of environmental impacts for class discussion.
GGY 436. Ice Age Earth (3) Prerequisite: GGY 335 or GLY 335 or consent of instructor. A review of the Quaternary Period, roughly the last two million years of earth history. Topics include the discovery of the ice age, climate change theory, glacial dynamics, geological and biological records of environmental change, and human evolution and migration during Quaternary.
GGY 437. Soils in the Earth Sciences (3) Prerequisite: GGY 130 or 335 or GLY 335 or consent of instructor. Examination of soil-forming processes, soil morphology, soil classification, and geographic distribution of soil types. Lab component includes field description of soil profiles, soil sampling, and laboratory methods. Students work individually or in small groups to learn how to analyze and classify soils. Two lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GGY 452. Historical Geography of the United States (3) Prerequisite: HST 201 or GGY 140, or consent of instructor. A study of the evolution of the cultural landscapes and the spatial patterns of the area that is now the United States. Examination of past geographies and of geographical change through time.
GGY 473. Regional and Environmental Land Use Planning (3) Prerequisites: GGY 130, 270, or EVS 195. Overview of the concepts and processes related to regional growth and development, including land use issues, planning strategies, and evaluation of regional land use plans and policies. Students conduct research on U.S. regional/environmental land use issue and present the results in oral and written form.
GGY 478. (578) Historic Preservation Planning (3) Prerequisite: GGY 270 or 452 or consent of instructor. An applied research course which deals with the procedures employed by federal, state and local agencies in locating, recording, restoring and preserving American architectural resources and material cultural heritage. Subjects examined include survey, documentation, and planning; historic districts; adaptive use; funding; legislation; and organizational roles. Students work individually or in small groups on an historic preservation project.
GGY 480. Advanced Topics in Geography (1-3) Prerequisite: Junior standing or consent of instructor. Selected physical, cultural, regional, or applied topics in geography that are not considered in detail in regular course offerings. More than one topic may be taken for credit (maximum six hours).
GGY 485. Geography of the British Isles (3) Prerequisite: GGY 180 or consent of instructor. Regional analysis of the physical and cultural features of the British Isles.
GGY 491. Directed Individual Study (1-3) Prerequisite: Overall GPA of at least 2.00, junior or senior standing, and consent of instructor, department chair and dean. Involves investigation under faculty supervision beyond what is offered in existing courses. Students work individually on a research project with a faculty member. For further information, consult the Directed Individual Studies section in this catalogue.
GGY 495. Senior Seminar (1-3) Prerequisite: Senior standing in geography. May be repeated one time for credit. One to three hours each week.
GGY 498. Internship in Applied Geography (3) Prerequisite: GGY 220, 270 or 328, junior or senior standing, a 2.50 grade point average, and consent of instructor. Supervised practical experience with a professional geographic agency. Area of concentration, requirements, and means of evaluation to be defined in consultation with faculty. Students work with local and regional professionals as they conduct business. May be repeated once.
GGY 499. Honors Work in Geography (2-3) Prerequisite: Eligibility for honors program and recommendation of department chairperson. Individual study for honors students. Students work with a faculty member and honors thesis committee to conduct focused research leading to an honors thesis.

GGY 520. Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems (3) Purpose, use, and development of GIS. Theoretical basis for spatial data models and the integration of these data to solve problems. Two lecture and two laboratory hours each week.
GGY 522. (422) Remote Sensing in Environmental Analysis (3) Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Use and interpretation of aerial photography and other remote sensing techniques in environmental analysis. The course emphasizes problem identification, digital image analysis, and interpretation of images through laboratory exercises. Three lecture and two laboratory hours each week.
GGY 524. (424) Advanced Geographic Information Systems (4) Prerequisite: GGY 328 or GGY 520 or consent of instructor. Advanced theory and application of the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), spatial data collection, data structures, data management and relational databases, spatial analysis, and display of geographic information in a computer-based environment. Lectures, demonstrations, and lab exercises. Two lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GGY 526. (426) Environmental Geographic Information Systems (4) Prerequisites: GGY 328 or GGY 520 or consent of instructor. Overview of environmental applications of GIS and completion of a GIS project; planning a GIS project; development and analysis of the data, and oral and written presentation of the results. Research topics may include atmospheric studies, oceanographic, hydrology, ecology, biology, resource management, and hazard risk assessments. Two lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GGY 552. Historical/Cultural Geography (3) Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Study of the evolution of natural environments and cultural landscapes; spatial diffusion; settlement patterns; and the material culture including vernacular architecture. Focus will be on North America, with consideration of European antecedents. A seminar type course in which students are responsible for an intensive research project. Three lecture hours per week.
GGY 578. (478) Historic Preservation Planning (3) An applied research course which deals with the procedures employed by federal, state and local agencies in locating, recording, restoring and preserving American architectural resources and material cultural heritage. Subjects examined include survey, documentation, and planning; historic districts; adaptive use; funding; legislation; and organizational roles. Three lecture hours per week.
GGY 591. Directed Independent Study (1-3)
GGY 592. Special Topics in Geography (1-4) Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Advanced special topics in geography through lecture, seminar, and laboratory or field experience. More than one topic may be taken for credit.

Geology

GLY 101. Principles of Geology (4) Introduction to the basic principles and processes governing the formation and evolution of the earth. Includes: formation of minerals and rocks, surficial and internal processes and concepts of plate tectonics. Field trips. Three lecture and two laboratory hours each week.
GLY 120. Environmental Geology (3) Introduction to the relationships between man and his geologic environment. Concerned with the problems that people have in using the earth and the reaction of the earth to that use. Emphasis is placed on earth processes, earth resources, and properties of rocks and surficial deposits insofar as they are important to or affect human activities.
GLYL 120. Environmental Geology Laboratory (1) Prerequisite or corequisite: GLY 120. Laboratory analysis of earth materials and resources. Applications of geologic principles to solving current environmental problems. Three laboratory hours each week and required field trips.
GLY 125. Natural Disasters (3) Examination of the causes, effects, and options available to mitigate actual disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, subsidence, flooding, severe weather, and meteorite impacts. Case histories are used to demonstrate scientific principles and socioeconomic issues.
GLY 131. Dinosaurs (2) Study of the Dinosaurs and other Mesozoic vertebrates as illustrations of the basic principles of vertebrate paleontology. Emphasis is placed on identification, systematics, evolution, ecology and extinction of the Dinosaurs.
GLY 132. The Earth Through Time (4) Prerequisites: GLY 101 or 120 and GLYL 120, or GGY 130. Geologic history of the earth and the fossil record. Methods of dating rocks and fossils, interpreting ancient environments and the age of the earth. Field trips. Three lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 135. Prehistoric Life (3) Introduction to the field of paleontology and the fossil record; the succession of life from its earliest beginnings through the Age of Dinosaurs to modern Man; evolutionary, environmental and ecological analyses of fossil plants and animals based on biologic and geologic principles.
GLY 150. (OCN 150) Introduction to Oceanography (3) An introduction to the geology, physics, chemistry and biology of the ocean; instruments and techniques of oceanography; resources of the ocean.
GLY 171. Applied Physical Geology (4) Prerequisite or corequisite MAT 111. Study of the materials that make up the Earth and the physical laws and processes that shape them. Field trips. Three lectures and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 200. Methods in Geology (3) Prerequisites: GLY 101 or 120 and GLYL 120 or GLY 171. Introduction to various bibliographic, graphic, field, and laboratory methods essential to geologic studies. Weekly projects and required field trips. Two lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 201. Mineralogy (4) Prerequisites: GLY 101 or GLY 120 and GLYL 120 or GGY 130: Prerequisite or corequisite: CHM 101. Introduction to the formation, chemistry, symmetry, structure and natural occurrences of minerals. Principles of physical properties, crystal chemistry, crystallography and mineral genesis. Study of geologically important rock-forming mineral groups and associations. Introduction to optical mineralogy and the use of the polarizing petrographic microscope. Computer applications in geology. Required field trip(s). Three lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 205. Earth Materials (4) Prerequisite: GLY 101 or GLY 120 and GLYL 120 or GGY 130. Introduction to the solid materials that form the Earth and the geological techniques and methods that are used to identify and describe these materials. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
GLY 220. Field Methods in Environmental Sciences (3) Prerequisites: GLY 101 or GLY 120 and GLYL 120 or GGY 130; and MAT 111. Field intensive introduction to data collection methods and analytic procedures associated with monitoring, assessment and management of environmental problems. Required field trips. Two lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 226. (GGY 235) Principles of Hydrology (3) Prerequisite: GGY 130 or 101 or GLY 120. Covers the three main components of terrestrial hydrology: (1) atmospheric water, precipitation, and surface-atmosphere interactions; (2) groundwater, infiltration, substance flow, and aquifers; and (3) surface water, watersheds, rivers and floods. Lectures and exercises focus on collecting and interpreting hydrological data to address environmental issues.
GLY 240. Geology of North Carolina (3) Prerequisite: any 100-level geology course or permission of instructor. General summary of North Carolina geology including mineral and rock resources. Geology of selected state parks. Three hours per week.
GLY 250. Beaches and Coasts (3) Examination of the variability of coastal landforms, the varied processes that shape them, and problems brought about by natural and anthropogenic changes along the coast. Focus on barrier island and spit formation; study of beaches, cliffs/platforms, dunes, estuaries and marshes; effects of tectonics, ice, and rivers on beaches and coastal morphology.
GLY 280. Special Topics in Geology (1-4) Study of selected topics in geology that are not considered in detail in regular course offerings. Taught on demand. More than one topic may be taken for credit (maximum six hours).
GLY 310. General Petrology (4) Prerequisites: GLY 201 or GLY 205. Survey of the major igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock groups. Emphasis is on classification, textural features, mode of occurrence, environments of origin and economic importance. Laboratory stresses rock identification and typical rock associations. Required field trips. Three lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 311. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology (4) Prerequisite: GLY 201. Theories of genesis of the major igneous and metamorphic rocks in the light of chemistry, mineralogy, structure and texture, field associations, and experimental data. Relationship between igneous and metamorphic processes and crust-mantle tectonic activity. Required field trips. Three lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 312. Sedimentary Petrology (4) Prerequisite: GLY 201. Introduction to the observation, description, and interpretation of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Emphasis on physical processes controlling sedimentation and diagenesis. Three lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 335. (GGY 335) Geomorphology (4) Prerequisites: GGY 130 or GLY 101 or GLY 120 and GLYL 120. A systematic treatment of the surface processes that shape fluvial, glacial, aeolian, and coastal landforms. Themes include process mechanics, description and classification of landforms, and evolution of landform systems. Students work individually or in small groups to analyze geomorphological data in field and laboratory settings. Three lecture and two laboratory hours each week.
GLY 337. Invertebrate Paleontology (4) Prerequisite: GLY 132 or permission of instructor. History of fossil protistans and invertebrates with emphasis on the principles of paleontology, systematics and evolution, and on the use of fossils in stratigraphic correlation. Required field trips. Three lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 340. Regional Geology of North America (3) Prerequisite: GLY 205 or GLY 310. A survey of the rocks, structures, natural resources, fossils, and tectonic histories of different regions of North America, such as the Precambrian Shield, Appalachians, and Cordillera. Three lecture hours per week.
GLY 350. (OCN 350) Advanced Oceanography (3) Prerequisite: GLY 150 or OCN 150. An in-depth examination of the structure and formation of ocean basins, the role of oceans in the hydrological cycle, the physical properties of seawater, atmospheric and ocean circulation, waves, and tides. Emphasis on data analysis and quantitative problem solving.
GLY 390. Field Methods in Geosciences (2) Prerequisite: GLY 132 or consent of instructor. Applied study of geological materials and processes in field settings. Introduction to methods and techniques used in the geosciences including field measurement, sample retrieval and data analysis. Colloquium and required field trips. Fees. May be repeated twice for credit.
GLY 402. Advanced Mineralogy (4) Prerequisite: GLY 201. Advanced techniques for mineral analysis and identification. Introduction to the theory and application of x-ray diffraction and fluorescence, the electron microprobe, spectroscopy, and reflected light microscopy. Three lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 420. (PHY 420) Global Climate Change (3) Prerequisites: PHY 102 or 202, CHM 102, MAT 162. Analysis of natural and anthropogenic global climate change. Historical and geological records of climate including sediment, tree ring, and ice core analysis. Physics and chemistry of climate, including Earth’s energy balance, global carbon cycle, climate modeling, atmospheric composition and dynamics.
GLY 426. (526) Geohydrology (4) Prerequisite: Consent of instructor and either GLY 101 or GLY 120 and GLYL 120 or GGY 130. Geology of groundwater and related aspects of surface water. Methods of ground water resource evaluation, protection, exploitation, and contaminant remediation. Three lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 431. Stratigraphy (4) Prerequisite: GLY 310 or 312 or 337. An introduction to the description, organization and classification of layered rocks. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of stratigraphic principles in elucidating earth history. Field trips. Three lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 441. Structural Geology (4) Prerequisite: GLY 310. Introduction to the mechanics, fabrics, and geometry of rock deformation, including stress-strain relationships, folds and folding, and faulting and fracturing of rocks. Required field trip. Three lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 443. (543) Tectonics (3) Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Explores ideas on plate tectonic theory including assessment of data that lead to its acceptance. Examines a broad range of tectonic principles and dynamics using modern and ancient examples, and considers controls on geological and geophysical processes from Earth’s core to crust. Includes geometry of present and past plate boundaries and motions, development of plates including sea-floor spreading, subduction and orogeny, evolution of continents and ocean basins, and tectonic driving mechanisms.
GLY 450. Geological Oceanography (4). Prerequisites: GLY 201 or 205 or 350. Physiography, petrology, structure, sediments and geologic history of the ocean floor including estuarine and coastal environments. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
GLY 458. (558) Introduction to Coastal Management (4) Prerequisites: Junior standing or consent of instructors. Interdisciplinary study of human impact on coastal environments and organisms. Topics include the physical and biotic settings of worldwide coastal regions, principles of coastal management, current topics in coastal management, and analysis of potential solutions to coastal problems. Three lectures and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 465. (565) Introduction to Geophysics (3) Prerequisites: GLY 101 MAT 112 or 115. Integrated application of geophysical methods to solve environmental and geologic problems. Includes discussion of reflection/refraction seismology, ground penetrating radar and gravity. Two lectures and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 470. Field Course in Geology (6) Prerequisites: GLY 311-312 or GLY 310, and GLY 431, 441. As a capstone experience, students will conduct intensive geological field mapping in various geological settings. Emphasizes application of prior geological knowledge and problem solving skills to interpretation of field data and solving fieldbased problems in small groups under direct faculty supervision. Preparation of geological maps using topographic map and aerial photography bases. Fees apply.
GLY 472. (572) Introduction to Geochemistry (3) Prerequisites: GLY 101, CHM 101 and consent of instructor. Investigation of the abundance and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth’s crust, mantle, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Introduction to thermodynamics, phase and mineral equilibrium, stable and radiogenic isotopes, and geochronology. Emphasizes the application of geochemical processes to solving geologic and environmental problems, with selected examples from field and laboratory studies. Three lecture hours each week.
GLY 473. (573) Isotope Geochemistry (3) Prerequisites: CHM 101-102 and consent of instructor. Introduction to the use of radioactive and stable isotopes for studying environmental processes; radioactive decay and the applications of radioisotopes at daily to earth history time scales; isotopic fractionation, and applications of stable isotopes in modern and paleo-environments.
GLY 480. Advanced Topics in Geology (1-4) Prerequisites: Junior standing in department and consent of instructor. Study of selected topics in geology that are not considered in detail in regular course offerings. Examples of specific topics are plate tectonics, seismology, depositional systems, groundwater hydrology, geochronology, and advanced paleontology. Taught on demand. More than one topic may be taken for credit (maximum 6 hours.)
GLY 489. Contemporary Issues in Geoscience (3) Prerequisites: Senior standing with a major in geology, GLY 310 and completion of 15 hours of courses in the major above the 199 level. As a capstone experience, students examine current problems based on an Earth-systems approach utilizing a combination of field, laboratory, and literature study. Emphasizes application of prior geological knowledge and problem solving skills in the context of individual or small group student research projects under direct faculty supervision. Requires written reports and oral presentations of results in approved professional format.
GLY 491. Directed Individual Study (1-3) Prerequisites: Overall GPA of at least 2.00, junior or senior standing, and consent of instructor, department chair and dean. Involves investigation under faculty supervision beyond what is offered in existing courses. For further information, consult the Directed Individual Studies section in this catalogue.
GLY 495. Senior Seminar (1-3) Prerequisites: Senior standing with a major in geology and completion of 18 hours in the major from courses at or above the 200-level. May be repeated one time for credit. Includes oral presentations and computer applications in Geology.
GLY 498. Internship in Geology (3-6) Prerequisite: Junior or senior geology major, minimum GPA 2.50 overall, and consent of instructor. Practical training experience with agency or business conducting geological services. Jointly evaluated by geology faculty member and on-site supervisor. May be repeated for maximum of 6 hours.
GLY 499. Honors Work in Geology (2-3) Prerequisites: Eligibility for honors program and recommendation of department chairperson. Individual study for honors students.

GLY 531. Micropaleontology (3) Prerequisite: Invertebrate paleontology or consent of instructor. Paleobiology and geological history of microorganisms, emphasizing the classification and systematics of major microfossil groups. Two lecture and three laboratory hours per week. Field trips.
GLY 533. Paleoecology (3) Prerequisite: Invertebrate paleontology or consent of instructor. Principles of ecological faunal analysis as primarily applied to the marine fossil record. Emphasizes the integration of form and function, taphonomy, and community development through time, and sedimentology/stratigraphy as a synthetic approach to paleoenvironmental, paleobiological and evolutionary analyses. Applications to biostratigraphy are considered. Three lecture hours per week. Field trips.
GLY 535. Stratigraphic Paleontology (3) Prerequisite: Invertebrate paleontology, stratigraphy, or consent of instructor. Analysis of the historical, geological and biological basis of biostratigraphy emphasizing the application of biostratigraphic principles and techniques in the development of high-resolution relative time scales. Three lecture hours per week. Field trips.
GLY 540. Regional Geology of North America (3) Prerequisites: Structural geology, stratigraphy. Survey of the rocks, structures, natural resources, and tectonic histories of different regions of North America, such as the Precambrian shield, Appalachians, and Cordillera. Syntheses of theories of orogenesis. Three lecture hours per week.
GLY 541. Advanced Structural Geology (3) Prerequisite: Structural geology. Origin and analysis of earth structures. Solution of advanced structural problems involving stress, strain, rheology, folding, and fracturing of rocks. Rock mechanics, finite strain, and fabric analysis of deformed rocks. Review of techniques. Directed field or lab problems and examples from literature. Two lecture and two laboratory hours per week.
GLY 543 (443). Tectonics (3) Prerequisites: Structural geology, stratigraphy, petrology. Examination of current ideas and their development as global tectonic theories. Plate tectonic controls on orogeny, orogenic belts, magmatism, sedimentation, and metallogeny of major geologic regions of North America and other areas of the world. Three lecture hours per week.
GLY 550. Marine Geology (3) Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Topography, sediments, structure and geologic history of the marine and estuarine environment. Three lecture hours per week. Field trip(s).
GLY 551. Seafloor Mapping (3) Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. A survey of different methods used to map the seafloor including satellite altimetry, multibeam and sidescan sonar swathmapping. Operation of instruments, survey strategies and techniques to process and interpret data will be explored. Two lecture and three laboratory hours per week. Shipboard field trip.
GLY 552. Coastal Sedimentary Environments (4) Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Sedimentary processes and environments of the world’s coastal systems. Emphasis on river deltas, estuaries, bays, salt marshes, barrier islands and associated inlets. Ice–bound as well as rocky coastlines also are examined. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week. Field trip.
GLY 555. Coastal Sediment Dynamics (3) Prerequisites: One year of calculus or physics or consent of the instructor. Theory and application of models used to quantify sediment movement and deposition in the coastal environment. Three lecture hours per week. Field trips.
GLY 558. Introduction to Coastal Management (4) Interdisciplinary study of human impacts on coastal environments and organisms. Topics include the physical and biotic setting of worldwide coastal regions, principles of coastal management, and analysis of potential solutions to coastal problems. Three lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 560. Integrative Stratigraphy (3) Prerequisites: Invertebrate paleontology, stratigraphy, petrology. Stratigraphic analysis of the geologic history of North America and parts of other continents. Emphasis on interpreting lithologic assemblages and stratigraphic relations in terms of modern tectonic–depositional models. Two lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
GLY 561. Coastal Plains Geology (3) Prerequisites: Invertebrate paleontology, stratigraphy, petrology. Origin and development of Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains with emphasis on stratigraphy, structure, geomorphology and tectonic history. Three lecture hours per week. Field trip(s).
GLY 565. (465) Introduction to Geophysics (3) Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Integrated application of geophysical methods to solve environmental and geologic problems. Includes discussion of reflection/refraction seismology, ground penetrating radar and gravity. Two lecture and three laboratory hours each week.
GLY 572. Introduction to Geochemistry (3) Prerequisites: Two semesters of college calculus; mineralogy or inorganic chemistry; or permission of instructor. Investigation of the abundance and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth’s crust, mantle, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Introduction to thermodynamics, phase and mineral equilibrium, stable and
GLY 573. Isotope Geochemistry (3) Prerequisite: Two semester of college calculus and two semesters of college chemistry. Introduction to the use of radio and stable isotopes for studying environmental processes; radio decay and the applications of radioisotopes at daily to earth-history timescales; isotopic fractionation, and applications of stable isotopes in modern and paleo-environments. Three lecture hours per week.
GLY 591. Directed Independent Study (1–3)
GLY 592. Topics in Geology (1–4) Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Advanced special topics in geology through lectures, seminars, and laboratory or field experience.
GLY 595. Seminar (1) Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Research and discussion of selected topics in earth sciences. Oral presentation at a departmental seminar and attendance at selected university seminars required.
GLY 597. Final Project in Geology (3) Permission of instructor. Focused study of a research topic in the practical application of geology. Topics are selected by the student with appropriate faculty and graduate coordinator approval. Students work with a faculty committee. Written analysis and oral presentation of the project is required.
GLY 598. Internship (3) Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Participation in field experience with an organization involved in the practice of geology. Students work with a licensed professional geologist focusing on the linkage between course work and practical application. Students complete a final report based on their activities. Final presentation required.
GLY 599. Thesis (1–6)

Oceanography

OCN 150. (GLY 150) Introduction to Oceanography (3) An introduction to the geology, physics, chemistry, and biology of the ocean; instruments and techniques of oceanography; resources of the ocean.
OCNL 150. Introduction to Oceanography Laboratory (1) Prerequisite or corequisite: OCN 150 or GLY 150. A hands-on, experiential introduction to the study of the oceans including geological, biological, chemical and physical aspects. Instruments and techniques of oceanography, marine resources, and human interaction with the oceans will also be explored. Multiple required field trips.
OCN 350. (GLY 350) Advanced Oceanography (3) Prerequisite: GLY 150 or OCN 150. An in-depth examination of the structure and formation of ocean basins, the role of oceans in the hydrological cycle, the physical properties of seawater, atmospheric and ocean circulation, waves, and tides. Emphasis on data analysis and quantitative problem solving.
OCN 390. Field Methods in Oceanography (2) GLY 132 or consent of instructor. Applied study of ocean materials and processes in field settings. Introduction to methods and techniques used in geosciences, with emphasis on coastal and marine environments, including field measurement, sample retrieval, and data analysis. Colloquium and required field trips. Fees.
OCN 480. Advanced Topics in Oceanography (1-4) Prerequisites: Junior standing with a major in oceanography and consent of instructor. Study of selected topics in oceanography that are not considered in detail in regular course offerings. May be repeated under different subtitle for a maximum of 7 hours.
OCN 490. Oceanography Capstone (3) Prerequisites: Senior standing, completion of other core requirements, and at least 15 hours of electives toward the major. Integration of principles, theories, and methods of oceanography. Students select a topic, problem or question and design a hands-on field and/or laboratory research project. Written and oral reports and group discussions of research findings; meets the applied learning requirement.
OCN 491. Directed Individual Study (1-3) Prerequisite: Overall GPA of 2.0, junior or senior standing, and consent of instructor, departmental chair, and dean. Involves investigation under faculty supervision beyond what is offered in existing courses. For further information consult the Directed Individual Study section of the catalogue. A maximum of 6 hours may be applied to the major.
OCN 499. Honors Work in Oceanography (2-3) Prerequisite: Eligibility for honors program and recommendation of department chair. Individual study for honors students.


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